Whalers in Norway continue to carry out commercial whaling despite falling demand for whale meat.
How many whales are killed in Norway?
Norwegian whalers hunt minke whales under a self-allocated quota, which was 917 for the 2022 season. This quota, which has fluctuated over the years, seems largely symbolic since the number of whales killed over the years has always fallen far short of the official quota.
2022 saw 580 whales slaughtered, up from 575 in 2021 and 503 in 2020 respectively. This was the highest total since 2016, but again falling well short of the quota, thus begging the question: why set such a high quota when (mercifully) it is never fulfilled? The answer lies partly in the Norwegian government’s defensive stance towards whaling and its desperate ambition to increase domestic demand for whale meat and also export whale meat to Japan, Iceland and the Faroes.
Whaling in Norway - facts
- Norwegian whalers killed 580 minke whales in 2022
- Many of the whales targeted are pregnant females
- Minkes are hunted under an 'objection' to the global ban on commercial whaling
- The hunts are heavily subsidised by the government, which constantly seeks to develop new markets
- Norway’s government promotes whale meat to school children and young people are offered whale burgers at festivals
- Tourists are offered whale meat in restaurants and cruise ships promote it to passengers on shore visits
Norwegian whaling: a brief history
Early whaling: Norwegian whalers have hunted whales in their own waters since around the 9th and 10th centuries. However, by the second half of the 19th century, the whalers’ ability to kill huge numbers of whales really ratcheted up as new whaling techniques and technologies coming out of Norway - most notably the exploding harpoon cannon and ‘factory ships’ for processing whales at sea - paved the way for a dramatic expansion of the industry.
After decimating local blue whale and fin whale populations, the whalers turned their attention to killing whales in other regions, including Iceland, the Faroes and Scotland and even as far afield as Newfoundland, southern Africa and the Antarctic. By the mid 1930s, Norwegian whalers dominated the global whaling industry, killing over half of all whales taken and producing much of the world’s whale oil.
Modern whaling: By the 1970s, around 2,000 minke whales were being caught each year and much of the meat was sold to Japan. Unsurprisingly, Norway was not keen to lose this lucrative market and be bound by the International Whaling Commission's global ban (‘moratorium’) on commercial whaling which came into effect in 1986 and so was one of the few governments to register a formal ‘objection’ which means it is not bound by it. At first, whales were hunted under the guise of ‘scientific research’ but by 1993, Norway resumed full-blown commercial whaling citing its ‘objection’ to the moratorium.
Minke whaling in Norway is conducted by fishermen, the vast majority of whom resume fishing activities outside the whaling season. The hunts rely on state subsidies and the government is constantly searching for new markets to exploit, with young people and tourists their main targets.
Exports and our campaign to ban the transit of whale meat through UK and EU ports
Prior to the ban on commercial whaling, Norway exported over 50% of the meat and blubber from hunted whales to Japan. After the moratorium, Norway originally agreed to halt its trade in whale products, but instead resumed exports in 2001.
Since then, we have seen concerted efforts by Norwegian (and Icelandic) whalers to increase their profits by exporting to Japan and other countries. In recent years, Norwegian whalers have shipped around a third of their catch to Japan.
Prominent individuals in the whaling industry have made much of the role of enhanced trade as being a signal that whaling can be made profitable. Such transit has often involved whale products being moved through ports in countries which oppose whaling. For example, the UK and the EU currently allow ships carrying whale meat and products to dock at our ports, despite our opposition to whaling.
Isn’t it illegal to ship whale meat halfway across the globe?
Sadly not. As is the case with Icelandic whale meat exports, the shocking truth is that Norway, along with Japan and Iceland, holds a ‘reservation’ against the listing of minke whales under Appendix 1 of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and, therefore, can legally trade whale products with each other.
Here are some examples of recent shipments:
February 2013: 4,250 kilos of frozen whale belly meat, blubber, tails and fins were exported to Japan via Rotterdam, Le Havre, Hamburg and Southampton, before heading on to Japan via the Suez Canal.
March 2015: Japan dumped a shipment of Norwegian minke whale meat after routine safety tests discovered that it contained up to twice the permitted level of three banned pesticides (see Myth 5 above).
October 2016: 3,455 kilos of minke whale meat were shipped to Japan via Hamburg.
July 2017: 432 kilos of whale meat was exported to the Faroe Islands.
October 2018: 148.3 metric tonnes of Norwegian minke whale meat was shipped to Rotterdam and the meat transferred to another container vessel which sailed on, via Hamburg and Busan, Korea, before reaching Sendai, Japan, in November.
October 2019: A shipment of 201.2 metric tonnes of Norwegian minke whale meat was again shipped via Rotterdam and Busan, arriving in Hakata, Japan in late November. [Data supplied by AWI, Animal Welfare Institute]
WDC working to end whaling in Norway
Whalers much prefer to keep the public, including their own population, in the dark, feeding them misinformation. The very last thing they want is for anyone to shine a spotlight on their activities, so one of the most important things WDC can do is to publicise the cruelty of their hunts and highlight what you can do to help.
In recent years we have:
- Repeatedly highlighted the cruelty of the hunts and contributed to resolutions tabled at the IWC (International Whaling Commission) meetings
- Mustered over 100,000 signatures to a petition supporting a Resolution by European MEPs to the EU Commission calling for a ban on the transit of whale meat from Norway (and other whaling regions) through EU ports
- Briefed the UK government on the anomaly of allowing whale products to pass through our ports and called for a ban on such transit
- Produced flyers informing tourists to Norway exactly why they should avoid supporting the killing by eating whale meat or purchasing products made from whales.
- Publicised the large percentage of pregnant females killed in the hunts. This is by no means the ‘accident’ the whalers claim but rather, a cynical exploitation of the fact that pregnant whales are easy targets, being larger and slower.
- Briefed the media repeatedly on the cruelty and wastage involved in the hunts including dumping whale carcasses overboard in view of passenger boats or close to harbours.
- Worked with partner organisations to survey Norwegians on whale meat consumption and attitudes to whaling
- Worked with whale watch tourism experts within Norway to approach the government, calling for regulations to improve the current industry, as a responsible, profitable whale watch industry is one of the most powerful arguments against whaling: every whale killed is one fewer to be watched.
- Partnered with NOAH, Norway's leading animal welfare organisation and our friends at the US-based Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) to run full page colour ads in leading Norwegian newspapers with positive messaging around the importance of live whales.
- Repeatedly highlighted in Norwegian media the crucial role whales and dolphins play in our ocean
- Exposed the fact that dwindling domestic demand means that some minke whale meat is sold for dog food. Norwegian whalers have also admitted that dumping unused whale products (meat, blubber, bone, etc) in the sea is common practice.